U.S. Government Reports and Publications

DHS (CISA): Federal PNT Services Acquisition Guidance (March 2024)

White House (OSTP): Updated Critical and Emerging Technologies List (now includes “Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Technologies”) (February 2024)

DOT: “Complementary PNT Action Plan” (September 2023)

DOC (NIST): Foundational PNT Profile: Applying the Cybersecurity Framework for the Responsible Use of Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Services (Revision 1) (January 2023)

DHS (CISA): Time Guidance for Network Operators, Chief Information Officers, and Chief Information Security Officers (revised version; October 2022)

DHS, DOT, DoD: 2021 Federal Radionavigation Plan (July 2022)

DHS (S&T): Resilient PNT Reference Architecture v1.0 (June 2022)

DHS (S&T): Resilient PNT Conformance Framework v2.0 (revised version; May 2022)

DOC (NIST): A Resilient Architecture for the Realization and Distribution of Coordinated Universal Time to Critical Infrastructure Systems in the United States, NIST Technical Note 2187 (November 2021)

DOC (NIST): An Evaluation of Dependencies of Critical Infrastructure Timing Systems on the Global Positioning System (GPS), NIST Technical Note 2189 (November 2021)

DHS (S&T): Fact Sheet – “Resilient PNT for Critical Infrastructure” (November 2021)

White House (OSTP/NSTC): National R&D Plan for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Resilience (August 2021)

DHS (CISA): Fact Sheet – “Understanding Vulnerabilities of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing” (July 2021)

DHS (HSOAC): Analyzing a More Resilient National Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Capability (May 2021)

DOC (NIST): Foundational PNT Profile: Applying the Cybersecurity Framework for the Responsible Use of Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Services (February 2021)

DOT (OST-R): Complementary Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) and GPS Backup Technologies Demonstration Report (January 2021)

White House: Memorandum on Space Policy Directive 7 (SPD-7) (January 2021)

DHS (S&T): Resilient PNT Conformance Framework v1.0 (original version; December 2020)

White House: National Space Policy (December 2020)

DOT (FAA): National Policy – “Selection and Use of Time and Frequency Sources for all Systems, Services, and Applications Supporting NAS Operations” (November 2020)

DOC (NIST): What is PNT? (video) (September 2020)

DHS (CISA): Time Guidance for Network Operators, Chief Information Officers, and Chief Information Security Officers (original version; June 2020)

DHS (CISA): Report on Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Backup and Complementary Capabilities to the Global Positioning System (GPS) (April 2020)

White House: Executive Order 13905 “Strengthening National Resilience through Responsible Use of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Service” (February 2020)

DHS, DOT, DoD: 2019 Federal Radionavigation Plan (December 2019)

DOC (NIST) (developed by RTI International): Economic Benefits of the Global Positioning System (GPS) (June 2019)

Congressional Research Service: Cybersecurity: Critical Infrastructure Authoritative Reports and Resources (April 2017)

DHS: “GPS Vulnerabilities for Critical Infrastructure” (April 2016)

DHS (OCIA): The Future of Smart Cities: Cyber-Physical Infrastructure Risk (August 2015)

DHS: “Critical Infrastructure Vulnerabilities to GPS Disruptions” (June 2014)

Presidential Policy Directive: “Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience” (PPD-21) (February 2013)

European Union Reports and Publications

EC: European Radio Navigation Plan (ERNP) (June 2023)

EC (Directorate-General for Defence Industry and Space): European Union Space Strategy for Security and Defence (March 2023)

EC (JRC): Assessing Alternative Positioning, Navigation and Timing Technologies for Potential Deployment in the EU (March 2023)

EUSPA: Earth Observation (EO) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Market Report (January 2022)

ECA: Special Report – EU space programs Galileo and Copernicus (July 2021)

EC: EU Space Program Regulation (EU) 2021/696 (April 2021)

ESA (developed by MaRINav): Final Report of the Maritime Resilience and Integrity of Navigation project (March 2020)

EC: Space Strategy for Europe (October 2016)

U.K. Government Reports and Publications

Department for Science, Innovation and Technology: PNT Policy Framework (October 2023)

UK Space Agency / Department for Science, Innovation and Technology / London Economics: The economic impact on the UK of a disruption to GNSS (dated August 2023; published October 2023)

Council for Science and Technology / Government Office for Science: “Priorities for strengthening the UK’s sovereign space capability” (October 2023)

UK Space Agency / Department for Science, Innovation and Technology / Space Based PNT Programme: “Space Based PNT Technical Concepts” (dated July 2023; published October 2023)

National Preparedness Commission / Royal Institute of Navigation / UK PNT Advisory Group: “Preparing for a Loss of Position and Timing” (October 2023)

Royal Institute of Navigation: “Recommendations to Promote the Adoption of Resilient Position, Navigation and Timing in the UK” (dated July 2023; published September 2023)

Cabinet Office: National Risk Register (August 2023)

UK Space Agency: Annual Report and Accounts 2022-2023 (July 2023)

London Economics: Economic benefits of resilient PNT in the UK (October 2022)

House of Commons / Defense Committee: Defence Space: through adversity to the stars? (October 2022)

House of Commons / Science and Technology Committee: UK space strategy and UK satellite infrastructure (October 2022)

Prime Minister’s Office: National Space Strategy (September 2021; updated February 2022)

Prime Minister’s Office: Integrated Review – Global Britain in a competitive age (March 2021)

UK Space Agency: Space Based PNT Programme (April 2021)

Government Office for Science: Satellite-derived time and position: a study of critical dependencies (Blackett Review) (January 2018)

Royal Institute of Navigation, UK Space Agency, Innovate UK, and London Economics: The economic impact on the UK of a disruption to GNSS (June 2017)

Canadian Government Reports and Publications

Innovation, Science and Economic Development (ISED) / Canadian Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Board: PNT Canadian Risk Assessment and Risk Mitigation Assessment (September 2020)